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Chapter 13 Test 2011

True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.
 

1. 

Fossils most often form when a dead organism is buried in sediments.
 

2. 

Carbon films are formed when a thin film of carbon is left, forming a silhouette of the original organism.
 

3. 

Dinosaur footprints are original remains.
 

4. 

To be a useful index fossil, a species must have been rare.
 

5. 

Nonconformities occur when sedimentary rocks are deposited on top of uplifted and eroded metamorphic or igneous rocks.
 

6. 

Radiocarbon dating would be useful in dating the age of Earth.
 

7. 

Index fossils are the remains of species that existed on Earth for relatively short periods of time.
 

8. 

Absolute age examines the position of rocks in a sequence.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

9. 

All of the following conditions help preserve organisms as fossils EXCEPT ____.
a.
quick burial by sediments
c.
protection from scavengers
b.
hard parts
d.
activities of microorganisms
 

10. 

If the same types of fossils are found in two separate rock layers, it's likely that the two rock layers ____.
a.
formed at different times
c.
formed under different conditions
b.
are part of one continuous deposit
d.
none of the above
 

11. 

Determining the order of events and the relative age of rocks by examining the position of rocks in a sequence is called ____.
a.
absolute dating
c.
relative dating
b.
radiometric dating
d.
radiocarbon dating
 

12. 

Gaps in rock layers are called ____.
a.
unconformities
c.
half-lives
b.
index fossils
d.
none of the above
 

13. 

If the same sequence of rock layers is observed over a large area, ____.
a.
they are probably not related
b.
a large deposit of rock formed over a large area
c.
conditions of formation were probably very different
d.
it is just a coincidence
 

14. 

A limestone bed containing fossils that are 550 million years old is ____ a bed of sandstone containing fossils that are 400 million years old.
a.
younger than
c.
older than
b.
the same age as
d.
not related to
 

15. 

In a series of undisturbed rock layers where shale lies between sandstone below and limestone above, the ____.
a.
limestone is youngest
c.
sandstone is youngest
b.
shale is youngest
d.
beds are all the same age
 

16. 

____ dating uses the properties of atoms in rocks and other objects to find their ages.
a.
Comparative
c.
Approximate
b.
Absolute
d.
Relative
 

17. 

Rock layers are correlated if they both contain the same ____.
a.
elements
c.
fossils
b.
shapes
d.
type of rock
 

18. 

If a layer of sandstone lies on top of a layer of limestone in which a 300-million-year-old fossil is found, and there are no unconformities, the layer of sandstone must be ____.
a.
older than 300 million years
c.
about 300 million years old
b.
younger than 300 million years
d.
older than 600 million years
 

19. 

With ____ dating, a rock's exact age can be determined, whereas with ____ dating, a rock's age is compared to the ages of other rocks.
a.
absolute, relative
c.
true, absolute
b.
relative, absolute
d.
relative, approximate
 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
remains
e.
missing layer
b.
fossil
f.
trace
c.
mold
g.
radioactive decay
d.
hard
h.
carbon-14
 

20. 

A ______ may tell a geologist when, where, and how an organism lived.
 

21. 

A ______ is the cavity left behind in the rock after an organism's hard part has dissolved.
 

22. 

Fossils up to 75,000 years old can be dated with ______.
 

23. 

The ______ parts of organisms are most likely to become fossils.
 

24. 

Fossils are the ______, imprints, or traces of once-living organisms preserved in rock.
 

25. 

An unconformity is a ______ of rock.
 

26. 

Preserved animal tracks are called ______ fossils.
 

27. 

is measured in half-lives
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
carbonaceous film
g.
index fossils
b.
cast
h.
mold
c.
principle of superposition
i.
uniformitarianism
d.
radiometric dating
j.
radioactive decay
e.
beta decay
k.
relative dating
f.
half-life
l.
unconformities
 

28. 

the process in which one of an isotope's neutrons breaks down into a proton and an electron and the electron leaves the atom as a beta particle [beta decay]
 

29. 

fossil formed when an outline of the original organism is formed from left-over carbon
 

30. 

made when sediments fill in a cavity made when an object decayed and the sediments harden into rock
 

31. 

the time it takes for half of the atoms in an isotope to decay
 

32. 

fossils of species that lived on Earth for short periods of time and were abundant and were widespread geographically
 

33. 

states that for undisturbed rocks, the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the rocks become younger and younger toward the top
 

34. 

hollow place in rock made when an organism died and was buried and holes in the rock let air or water reach it and dissolve the organism
 

35. 

the process of calculating the absolute age of a rock by measuring the amounts of parent and daughter materials in a rock and by knowing the half-life of the parent
 

36. 

a process that uses the properties of atoms in rocks and other objects to find their ages
 

37. 

the order of events and the relative age of rocks is determined by examining the position of rocks in a sequence
 

38. 

gaps in rock layers that develop when agents of erosion remove existing rock layers
 

39. 

states that Earth processes today are similar to those that took place in the past
 



 
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